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New Testament Studies

"If the foundations are destroyed,
what can the righteous do?" (Psalm 11:3)

"I shall raise up for David a Tzemach...
This is his name by which he shall be called,
Adonai Tzidkeinu." (Jeremiah 23:5-6)

This collection focuses on the internal Hebraic or Jewish elements of the New Testament.

1 John 5:7
This study examines the authenticity of this NT passage.

As Was Their Custom: The Jewish Disciples in the Light of Scripture
The first Jewish followers of Yeshua continued to live and believe as Jews. And the first Gentiles to express faith in Yeshua of Nazareth were folks already living within the circle of the synagogue and the sphere of the Scriptures of ancient Israel. [8 HTML pages]

Christmas is a Yehudi Holiday
Yes, Virginia, what you don't know is: Yeshua was Ben David of the Tribe of Judah, not only Ben Elohim, Son of God. [1 HTML page]

Early Christian Creeds
This document contains introductory notes and texts for the following creeds: Apostles' Creed, Creed of Caesarea, Creed of Nicea, Constantinopolitan Creed, Athanasian Creed, and salient portions of the Creed of Chalcedon. Theological evolution is evident. [4 HTML pages]

Elohim Ohev et Yeshua (God Loves Yeshua)
Whom God loves is a validation and an example for all. [2 HTML pages]

Five Messianic Texts
A major NT theme: Psalm 110:1/Matthew 22:44, Hebrews 1:3, Acts 7:55-56, Romans 9:33-34, Hebrews 7:24-25 [1 HTML pages]

God Raised the Lord
A central message of the New Testament is that the God of the Hebrew fathers raised Yeshua physically, bodily, in time and space, from the dead. [3 HTML pages]

Grace and Peace Come from God and Yeshua
The opening salutations and closing benedictions in the N.T. reveal two repeated patterns. They either include God the Father and Yeshua the Messiah, or Yeshua alone. [4 HTML pages]

The Hasidic Mother Of Yeshua
The distorting traditions about Mary in medieval Jewish polemic, Roman Catholicism, and academic biblical scholarship obscure the NT portrait of Miryam —a devout Jewish girl who trusted in God. This article focuses on her Bible-rooted faith and its implications for the child she raised in her home. [5 HTML pages]

HaYachid—The Unique Messiah
In the NT, Yeshua is referred to as God's "one and only" and his "beloved one." Both terms mirror the Hebrew word yachid, which is used for special, unique, and precious children — including Isaac. [7 pages, PDF]

The Hebrew Meaning of "Jesus"
The name Jesus is rooted in the Hebrew Scriptures and conveys ultimate redemptive meaning. [3 HTML pages]

The Holocaust Window
A memorial display in Princeton, New Jersey, created to remember Yeshua the Jewish Messiah and his view of the Holocaust.

"I Am Not Alone, the Father is With Me "
What Yeshua says and his silence both are for those who are listening closely. [2 HTML pages]

"It is Written" (Authority of the Hebrew Bible)
This table lists the occurrences of Paul's phrase "It is written" and the texts he is referring to. [2 HTML pages]

John 1:14
This single passage contains a wealth of allusions to Hebrew Bible concepts. [2 HTML pages]

John 20:28: "My Lord and my God"
Thomas's exclamation upon seeing the resurrected Messiah Yeshua has served as a banner of faith for many. When viewed in the broader context of other confessions of faith in the Gospel of John and other NT documents, his words can take on surprising meanings. [8 pages]

Koiné Greek Introduction & Transliteration Table
This PDF has the Greek alphabet and pronunciation guide, and an introduction to the history of Koiné Greek. Included are sample texts from the Septuagint and NT in modern Greek type and ancient uncial letters. [3 pages, PDF]

Messiah and the Spirit
A table showing parallel actions by the Messiah Yeshua and the Holy Spirit. [4 pages, PDF]

"Messiah Belongs to God"
The biblical portrait of the Messiah, being in submission to God, carries important implications for his disciples. For they too must choose to subject themselves to God, Messiah, and one another — if they wish to be included in Yeshua's new covenant. [3 HTML pages]

Messiah Tabernacled Among Us
Before Beit Lechem (Bethlehem), Yeshua began to "tabernacle" (Hebrew: dwell in a mishkan) in the womb of "Virgin Israel." [1 HTML page]

Miryam Sings With Hannah
Joining an ancient chorus of praise by various mothers of Israel, Yeshua's mother sang with Hannah, the mother of Samuel, who lived a thousand years before. This table compares Luke 1:46–55 and 1 Samuel 2:1–10. [1 HTML page]

Nazarene Jewish Christianity by Ray Pritz
This book review outlines Pritz's history of the Nazarene Jewish movement in the early centuries after the age of the Jewish apostles. The Nazarenes were Torah-observant Jews who believed in the divnity of Yeshua the Messiah, in contrast to the Ebionites who did not believe in his divinity. Because they retained their Jewish ethnic identity, the Nazarenes were usually condemned by Gentile Christian church leaders. [4 PDF pages]

Philippians 2:6
Controversy surrounds this verse. To some it says Jesus is God. To others, a majority of translators, it says Jesus was in the form of God but was not God, the Father, himself. [5 HTML pages]

The Pre-Tribulation Rapture: A Devastating Doctrine
Some influential Messianic and Protestant Evangelicals are teaching their people a doctrine that is inherently unScriptural, is anti-Jewish, and ultimately destructive to people's faith. [5 HTML pages]

A PDF version of this study is also available:
The Pre-Tribulation Rapture: A Devastating Doctrine [8 PDF pages]

Recovering God, the Father
The God and Father of Yeshua is inextricably tied to the revelation of his Son Messiah. But too often in Christian teaching, the Av is eclipsed behind the Son. This study focuses on restoring his place of honor. [8 HTML pages]


Returning to the Altar in Jerusalem
A chapel sermon written and delivered by Paul Sumner at Pepperdine University in 1990. [2 PDF pages]

Righteous Jews Raised Yeshua
The gospel of Luke portrays those Jews who were closest to Yeshua in his youth as being the most orthodox and hasidic. This study explores the substance of their faith. Luke's agenda was to affirm God's revelation to Israel and to highlight the "ground" in which the Messianic Sprout grew up. [6 HTML pages]

The Rock of Yeshua's Kehilah
A central confession of faith in Yeshua in the NT is often ignored by the modern Church. But Peter's confession in Matthew 16:16-18 ties the Messianic Gospel to the foundations of messianic thought in the Hebrew Scriptures. [3 HTML pages]

Saturday Night, The First Day of the Week
The evidence of the New Testament is that the earliest Jewish and Gentile believers gathered in the evening after the end Shabbat for their fellowship meetings. [4 HTML pages]

Scripture Compared with Creeds & Hymns
Some post-biblical creeds and modern hymns of the Christian Church are compared with select passages of Scripture. [2 HTML pages] [New]

The Shema is Not All (For Yeshua's Followers)
Deuteronomy 6:4 (the "Shema: Hear, O Israel") is expanded by Yeshua and the New Testament to include the fuller revelation about God found in Psalm 110:1. [4 HTML pages]

Song of Moses and the Lamb
Yeshua joins Moses in singing praise to God, the Father, the Lord God the Almighty. [3 HTML pages]

Titus 2:13
A discussion of translations that refer to Yeshua as "the great God." [3 HTML pages]

Torah in the N.T. (1 Timothy 1:5-10)
This parallel table compares some of the Ten Commandments with the apostle Paul's teaching in 1 Timothy 1:5-10. [1 HTML page]

Torah in the N.T. (Colossians 3)
This parallel table compares portions of the Shema in Deut. 6 with the apostle Paul's teaching in Colossians 3. [1 HTML page]

Torah in the N.T. (Three Divisions of Tanakh)
The Hebrew Bible is divided into three sections: the Law, the Prophets, and the Writings. This order is reflected in statements by Yeshua and by Paul. [3 HTML pages]

Who is the Shepherd in Acts: The Holy Spirit or Messiah Yeshua?
Who supervised the emergence and growth of the Messianic Community following Yeshua's resurrection? The book of Acts attributes this work to the Holy Spirit and to the Resurrected Messiah. How do we reconcile this dual headship? [11 PDF pages]

Who Killed Yeshua?
The NT lays the burden for the death of Yeshua at the feet of three sources: Jewish leaders, Gentile leaders, and God himself. [3 HTML pages]

Worship in the N.T. (Following Hebrew Bible Maps)
This detailed study examines "objects" of worship. That is, it looks at whom the first Jewish believers prayed to and worshiped. Worship reveals a person's underlying believes and concepts about God. The NT evidence is compared with worship patterns in the Hebrew Bible, and it demands reexamination of historical Christian practice and thoughts. [1 HTML intro page + 16 PDF pages]

Yashar 30
This final issue of the Yashar study paper from April 1995 contains articles such as: The Three Anointings, He Sat Down, The Glory and the Lamp, Ani Hu, The Holy Ghost Conspiracy, He Cried. The paper was the precursor to the Hebrew Streams website, launched in 1998. [20 PDF pages]

Yeshua bar Abba & Barabbas
There is an ironic play on the names of Jesus and Barabbas which is invisible in English Bibles. Only knowledge of Hebrew and Aramaic (and some textual analysis) reveals this rich irony in the gospel story of Yeshua's last day. [2 HTML pages]

Yeshua haTzaddik
The New Testament refers to Yeshua as "the Holy One and Righteous One [tzaddik]" (Acts 3:14). Among Jews of his time, these were significant titles. To this day, Tzaddik has continued to be an important description for holy men in the Jewish community.[2 HTML pages]

Yeshua Prayed in the Early Morning
Times. Locations. Postures. Terms of Address. Kinds of Prayer. Prayer At or For Special Events. Teacher of Prayer. Did the Disciples Pray to Yeshua? [4 HTML pages]

Yeshua Made Them Breakfast
John 21 depicts a scene filled with fulfilled prophecy, future promises, and the love of God. [3 HTML pages]

Yeshua Sang Hymns
It's uncommon to hear people talk about Yeshua singing praise hymns. This study examines three passages — Matthew 26:30, Hebrews 2:12, Revelation 5:3-4 — to show that his hymns focus on God's salvation of himself and the faithful of Israel and of the Nations. [5 HTML pages]

Yeshua Sat Down to Reign With God
Repeated imagery in the New Testament reveals the importance that when Yeshua was raised from the dead, "he sat down." This means not that he rested. It means he took up a position of ruling authority next to God. [4 HTML pages]

Yeshua's (the Lord's) Prayer
His prayer in Matthew 6 and Luke 11 in Hebrew, English, English transliteration. [2 PDF pages]  

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