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Monotheism

"Shema Yisrael, Adonai Eloheinu, Adonai Echad."
(Deuteronomy 6:4)
"The kingdom of our God and the authority of his Messiah have come."
(Revelaton 12:10)
"God anointed Yeshua of Nazareth...God was with him...
God raised him up...God appointed him as judge."

(Acts 10:38,40,42)

[See the discussion of "Monotheism" below the list of articles.]

1 John 5:7
This study examines the authenticity of this NT passage.

1 John 5:7 and the Book of Mormon
The Book of Mormon purports to be an untainted source of direct divine revelation. But it contains a passage that was inserted into the Greek New Testament by Catholic scribes and is found in the King James Bible. [2 HTML pages]

At the Right Hand of God
The NT builds its case about Yeshua's link to God, using imagery from Psalm 110:1 and Daniel 7:13-14. [2 PDF pages]

Demons Knew Who Yeshua Was
The NT contains astonishing statements about the "witness" that unclean spirits gave to Yeshua, the Son of God — often in contrast to those of human beings. [3 HTML pages]

The Divine Council in the Hebrew Bible
This is Chapter 2 from a larger thesis by the same name. This chapter focuses on the evidence for the council imagery and concept in the Tanakh (Old Testament). [29 PDF pages]

The Divine Council in Second Temple Judaism & the New Testament
This is Chapter 5 from a larger thesis. It focuses on the trajectories of the heavenly council imagery and concept in the Hebrew Bible into documents of what is called "Early Judaism" and in the New Testament. See "Heavenly Council" below. [27 PDF pages]

Early Christian Creeds
This document contains introductory notes and texts for the following creeds: Apostles' Creed, Creed of Caesarea, Creed of Nicea, Constantinopolitan Creed, Athanasian Creed, and salient portions of the Creed of Chalcedon. Theological evolution is evident. [4 HTML pages]

"Echad" in the Shema
The meaning of the adjective echad ("one") is the subject of numerous discussions. This study seeks to clarify what is often misunderstood or misinterpreted. We examine the word in the contexts of the Shema (Deut 6:4), then the whole message of the Hebrew Bible and the ancient (pagan) world in which Israel lived. [7 HTML pages]

“Elohim” in Biblical Context
The Hebrew word "Elohim" has been mined for its secrets for centuries. Its plural ending "-im" suggests to some a plurality within the Godhead. What is often missing in such interpretations is a thorough study of the word within the biblical contexts. This article looks at those contexts in depth and examines the other words for "God." This is a very detailed study. [Now 2 linked HTML documents]

God Loved Yeshua
Whom God loves is a validation and example. [2 HTML pages]

The Heavenly Council in the Hebrew Bible and New Testament
Both the Hebrew Bible and New Testament refer to God and his heavenly court. He is depicted as king sitting on a throne surrounded by beings who form his council and serve as court messengers and his soldiers (army). This vivid symbolic imagery links the HB and NT theologically. In fact, the NT uses the throne room imagery to depict Yeshua's exalted status and relation to God. [1 HTML intro + 13 PDF pages]

John 20:28: "My Lord and my God"
Thomas's exclamation upon seeing the resurrected Yeshua has served as a banner of faith for many Christians. When viewed in the context of other NT exclamations and confessions of faith, his words can take on other meanings.

Monotheism and the Bible
The term means different things to different religious groups and individuals. It's time that serious Bible readers compare these definitions with the contents of the Hebrew Bible and New Testament. [5 HTML pages]

Old Models vs Biblical Priorities
The Bible doesn't change its rock solid stance in spite of being remodelled, reinterpreted, even revised, by later generations. [6 HTML pages]

OMG: The God of Western Culture
The Bible is a confrontational collection of anti-pluralistic, anti-syncretistic affirmations about the God of ancient Israel and of the New Testament. The pop culture God of our time, the OMG, is simply another deity in the pantheon created by humans as their alternative to the biblical God. [2 HTML pages]

Recovering God, the Father
The God and Father of Yeshua is inextricably tied to the revelation of his Son Messiah. But too often in Christian teaching, the Av is eclipsed. This study focues on restoring his place of honor. [7 HTML pages]

Romans 9:5b
This verse is ambiguous in Greek. Does it say the Son is God, or that he is God blessed? Modern translations are cited. [3 HTML pages]

Scripture Compared with Creeds & Hymns
Some post-biblical creeds and modern hymns of the Christian Church are compared with select passages of Scripture. [2 HTML pages] [New]

The Shema is Not All (For Yeshua's Followers)
Deuteronomy 6:4 (the "Shema: Hear, O Israel") is expanded by Yeshua and the New Testament to include the fuller revelation about God found in Psalm 110:1. [4 HTML pages]

The Trinity Paradigm
This frank study contrasts post-biblical Christian systematic theological statements and formulas about the Godhead — with actual Bible emphases.[8 HTML pages]

To God, Through Messiah: The Gospel Blueprint
In the NT, the repeated pattern of spiritual progression is toward God through the Messiah Yeshua. This mirrors the Tanakh pattern of approaching God at the Mishkan (Tabernacle) in the person of the High Priest. [2 HTML pages]

The Two Lords (of Psalm 110:1)
There are two Hebrew words translated "Lord." Psalm 110:1 contains both of them. This one verse opens a window into Messianic theology and prophecy, and forms a major link between Hebrew Scripture and the New Testament. This verse is the most quoted by Yeshua and his Jewish disciples. [6 HTML pages]

Who is the Shepherd in Acts: The Holy Spirit or Messiah Yeshua?
Who supervised the emergence and growth of the Messianic Community following Yeshua's resurrection? The book of Acts attributes this work to the Holy Spirit and to the Resurrected Messiah. How do we reconcile this dual headship? [11 PDF pages]

Worship in the N.T. (Following Hebrew Bible Maps)
This detailed study examines "objects" of worship. That is, it looks at whom the first Jewish believers prayed to and worshiped. Worship reveals a person's underlying beliefs and concepts about God. The NT evidence is compared with worship patterns in the Hebrew Bible, and it demands reexamination of historical Christian practice and thought. [1 HTML + 16 PDF pages]

Yashar 30
This final issue of the Yashar study paper from April 1995 contains articles such as: The Three Anointings, He Sat Down, The Glory and the Lamp, Ani Hu, The Holy Ghost Conspiracy, He Cried. This paper was the precursor of the Hebrew Streams website, launched in 1998. [1 page intro + 20 PDF pages]

Yeshua Called Him "Abba"
Some Christians call Yeshua "Abba, Father." This is not done in the NT. So where did the custom come from? [3 HTML pages]

Yeshua Sat Down to Reign With God
Repeated imagery in the New Testament reveals the importance that when Yeshua was raised from the dead, "he sat down." This means not that he rested. It means he took up a position of ruling authority next to God. [4 HTML pages]

Yeshua's Kehilah
The Rock upon which Yeshua built his congregation [kehilah, ekklesia] is the confession given by one of his disciples (Peter), when he asked them who they believed Yeshua to be. This "rock" is not prominent in Christianity's confessions of faith


Related Text Studies

Daniel 7:9-14 Allusions in the N.T.

Messiah and the Spirit [PDF]

Messiah Was With God

Occurrences of "Holy Spirit" in the N.T.

Psalm 110:1 in the N.T. (Quotations & Allusions)

Ruach in the Hebrew Scriptures [PDF]

Salutations & Benedictions in the N.T.

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