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Hebrew Bible

"If the foundations are destroyed,
what can the righteous do?" (Psalm 11:3)

"The word of our God stands forever." (Isaiah 40:8)

This portal has articles on Hebrew Bible topics and the Hebrew language.

Aaron's Blessing (Numbers 6:24-26)
The famous blessing in Hebrew, English, and English transliteration. [1 HTML page]

Anti-Myth In Genesis
For centuries liberal scholars have accused Genesis of being filled with mythology. They're right. But the "mythology" is for polemical purposes. Genesis turns the myths upsidedown and insideout in order to correct their falsehoods by setting straight the Story of primeval history. This article examines seven contested points.

Armageddon: God's Final War with Evil Men
Much confusion exists about the Bible's teaching on Armageddon. What is it? When will it occur? What or who will cause it to happen? This study of prophecy attempts to answer those questions. It's not what most people think it is. And it's closely connected to the death of God's "Associate." [5 HTML pages]

Bezalel: In the Shadow of God
In some Hebrew names there is great treasure. The seldom-mentioned man who built the Mishkan in the wilderness was filled with God's Spirit. His very name depicts a special enshroudment from God that is alluded to throughout Hebrew Scripture and in New Testament language describing the Transfiguration of Yeshua and the overshadowing of Miryam his mother. [6 HTML pages]

Christmas is a Yehudi Holiday
Yes, Virginia, what you don't know is: Yeshua was Ben David of the Tribe of Judah, not only Ben Elohim, Son of God. [1 HTML page]

David, the First Messiah
The central human character in the Hebrew Bible is David ben Jesse of Bethlehem. David is the preeminent "Messiah" in Scripture, and it contains a whole constellation of theological concepts about him and his descendants, including the final David who will co-rule with God over Israel and all nations. This extensive list contains supporting texts. [7 HTML pages]

The Divine Council in the Hebrew Bible
This is Chapter 2 from a larger thesis by the same name. This chapter focuses on the evidence for the council imagery and concept in the Tanakh (Old Testament). [29 PDF pages]

The Divine Council in Second Temple Judaism & the New Testament
This is Chapter 5 from a larger thesis. It focuses on the trajectories of the heavenly council imagery and concept in the Hebrew Bible into documents of what is called "Early Judaism" and in the New Testament. See "Heavenly Council" below. [27 PDF pages]

"Echad" in the Shema
The meaning of the Hebrew adjective echad (one) is the subject of numerous discussions. This study seeks to clarify what is often misunderstood or misinterpreted about the word. It specifically examines the context of the Shema (Deut 6:4) and what echad tells us about the God of Israel. [10 HTML pages]

"Elohim" in Biblical Context
The Hebrew word "Elohim" has been mined for its secrets for centuries. Its plural ending "-im" suggests to some a plurality within the Godhead. What is often missing in such interpretations is a thorough study of the word within its biblical contexts. This article looks at those contexts in depth and examines the other words for "God." This is a very detailed study. [Now 2 linked HTML documents]

Eved HaShem—The Two Servants in Isaiah
Who is the "Servant" in the book of Isaiah? One view says he is the nation Israel, the other says he is the Messiah. A careful study of the prophet himself shows there are two Servants of the Lord, not one. [5 HTML pages]

The Genesis Plurals
Three times in the book of Genesis, God speaks using first person plural pronouns ("us" and "we"). This pattern occurs elsewhere only in Isaiah 6 and 41. How are these passages to be explained — from within the Bible itself? [7 HTML pages]

God is With Us (An Ancient Promise)
Isaiah prophesied that a man named Immanu El ("with us is God") would one day come. He wasn't predicting a new reality for Israel. He was reminding them of an ancient one, so they could recognize the familiar one in the future. [5 HTML pages]

HaShem—The Name
This study explains the terms "HaShem" and "Tetragrammaton," and discusses the Hebrew meaning behind the sacred name of God: YHVH, Yahweh, or Adonai. Divine and human names have meaning in the Bible. The Hebrew names of Joshua, Isaiah, and Jesus are all related to God's ineffable Name. And each name contains a form of the verb yasha meaning to deliver, rescue or save. [6 HTML pages]

The Heavenly Council in the Hebrew Bible and New Testament
Both the Hebrew Bible and New Testament refer to God and his heavenly court. He is depicted as king sitting on a throne surrounded by beings who form his council and serve as court messengers and his soldiers (army). This vivid symbolic imagery links the HB and NT theologically. In fact, the NT uses the throne room imagery to depict Yeshua's exalted status and relation to God. [1 HTML intro + 13 PDF pages]

Hebrew & Aramaic Introduction & Transliteration Tables
Tables showing Hebrew consonants and vowels, academic and non-academic pronunciations, and a brief survey of Aramaic, the sister language of Hebrew. [4 pages, PDF 120k]

The Hebrew Meaning of "Jesus"
The name Jesus is rooted in the Hebrew Scriptures and conveys ultimate redemptive meaning. [3 HTML pages]

Hesed Adonai: God's Steadfast Love in Lamentations
This brief study looks at the Book of Lamentations and Jeremiah's famous statement that God's steadfast love never ceases. [3 HTML pages]

Kings & Prophets Table
Based on 1 & 2 Kings, the table gives names & dates of kings of Judah and Israel, along with prophets who served during their times. [1 PDF page]

The Lord is My Rock
The Rock gave you birth. [1 HTML page]

Mediators in the Tanakh & the Mediator Messiah
The NT teaching that Yeshua is God's sent mediator is rooted in the examples of Hebrew Scripture. [6 HTML pages]

OMG: The God of Western Culture
The Bible is a confrontational collection of anti-pluralistic, anti-syncretistic affirmations about the God of ancient Israel and of the New Testament. The pop culture God of our time, the OMG, is simply another deity in the pantheon created by humans as their alternative to the biblical God. [3 HTML pages]

"Palestine" in the Bible
The ancient Greek word Palaistine in the writings of Herodotus appear in some English Bibles some 2000 years later—in the form "Palestine." This study examines the Hebrew behind this and the word "Philistines." [4 HTML pages]

Recovering God, the Father
The God and Father of Yeshua is inextricably tied to the revelation of his Son Messiah. But too often in Christian teaching, the Av is eclipsed. This study focuses on restoring his place of honor. [7 HTML pages]

Returning to the Altar in Jerusalem [a sermon]. Written and delivered by Paul Sumner at Pepperdine University in 1990. [2 PDF pages]

The Seventh Shema
Most readers are familiar with the famous Shema in Deuteronomy. Many do not know there are six more shemas. [3 HTML pages}

Shem Yeshua Mashiach: The Hebrew Roots of the Name "Jesus Christ"
Deeply important Hebrew elements are found in Jesus' name. Several passages in the NT reflect these ancient roots. Once seen, readers of Scripture will forever see them. [2 HTML pages]

The Third Day: Resurrection Patterns
Paul said the Messiah was raised from the dead "on the third day according to the Scriptures" (1 Cor 15:4). But there is no explicit prophecy in the Tanakh that this would happen. On what basis did Paul make his claim? This article examines the pattern of events that occur on "the third day" — especially the prophecy in Hosea 6:2 that God would raise his son Ephraim from the dead. [4 HTML pages]

Three Divisions of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible)
Traditionally, the Hebrew Bible has been portioned into three sections. (The four-division organization in an "Old Testament" follows the format of the Greek Bible or Septuagint.) This table gives the Hebrew names and meanings of the biblical books. It also gives the Greek/Septuagint and English names for comparison. [3 HTML pages]

Three Hebrew Passages
This PDF table has three passages from the Hebrew Bible: Numbers 6:22–27, Isaiah 55:8–11, and Psalm 103:8–14. Each contains the Hebrew text, a transliteration into English characters for pronunciation, and English translation. These provide good pronunciation practice and memorization of rich material. [3 pages, PDF 90k]

Torah al Lev: Torah Upon the Heart (A Mosaic Idea)
When the New Testament alludes to Jeremiah's prophecy of a new covenant, in which the Law of God will be written upon the hearts of people (instead of merely on stone), it is not inaugurating a new principle of operation, nor a new religion. It is drawing upon the original purpose of God as expressed in The Shema and lived out by many in ancient Israel. [4 HTML pages]

The Two Lords (of Psalm 110:1)
There are two Hebrew words translated "Lord." Psalm 110:1 contains both of them. This one verse opens a window into Messianic theology and prophecy, and forms a major link between Hebrew Scripture and the New Testament. This verse is the most quoted by Yeshua and his Jewish disciples. [6 HTML pages]

Virgin Israel: Mother of Yeshua of Nazareth
The idea of the Messiah being born to a virgin is not an alien or mythological idea. It's an ancient doctrine lying deep in the heart of Hebraic faith. [4 HTML pages]

The "Virgin" of Isaiah 7:14
This study looks at the Greek of Matthew 1:23 and Isaiah 7:14 (LXX), and compares the meanings of the Hebrew words almah and betulah, as they are used in the Hebrew Bible.

What Is God's Name: Adonai, Jehovah, or Yahveh?
This study surveys the meaning and origins of three popular "names" for God in Jewish and Christian communities. [12 PDF pages] [New]

We Have an Intercessor
The NT teaching that Yeshua is an Intercessor and the "one mediator between God and men" is not widely popular, either in Judaism or Christianity. But it's biblical. [5 HTML pages]

Why the Rabbis Exiled Daniel ( the Ketuvim)
In medieval Hebrew and modern Jewish Bibles, the book of Daniel is in the Writings or last portion of the Tanakh. He is not among the Prophets. Although he is called a "prophet" in the Dead Sea Scrolls, by Josephus, and in the N.T. [4 HTML pages]

Yashar 30
This final issue of the Yashar study paper from April 1995 contains articles such as: The Three Anointings, He Sat Down, The Glory and the Lamp, Ani Hu, The Holy Ghost Conspiracy, He Cried. The paper was the precursor to the Hebrew Streams website, launched in 1998. [20 PDF pages]

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