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New Testament Studies

"If the foundations are destroyed,
what can the righteous do?" (Psalm 11:3)

"I shall raise up for David a Tzemach...
This is his name by which he shall be called,
Adonai Tzidkeinu." (Jeremiah 23:5-6)

This collection focuses on the internal Hebraic or Jewish elements of the New Testament.

As Was Their Custom: The Jewish Disciples in the Light of Scripture
The first Jewish followers of Yeshua continued to live and believe as Jews. And the first Gentiles to express faith in Yeshua of Nazareth were folks already living within the circle of the synagogue and the sphere of the Scriptures of ancient Israel. [8 HTML pages]

Christmas is a Hebrew Holiday
The New Testament is clear about this matter.

The Davar Became Flesh
Before Beit Lechem, Yeshua began to "tabernacle" (Hebrew, dwell in a mishkan) in the womb of "Virgin Israel." [1 HTML page]

Early Christian Creeds
This document contains introductory notes and texts for the following creeds: Apostles' Creed, Creed of Caesarea, Creed of Nicea, Constantinopolitan Creed, Athanasian Creed, and salient portions of the Creed of Chalcedon. Theological evolution is evident. [4 HTML pages]

God Loved Yeshua
Whom God loves creates a validation and an example. [2 HTML pages]

God Raised the Lord
A central message of the New Testament is that the God of the Hebrew fathers raised Yeshua physically, bodily, in time and space, from the dead. [3 HTML pages]

The Hasidic Mother Of Yeshua
The distorting traditions about Mary in medieval Jewish polemic, Roman Catholicism, and academic biblical scholarship obscure the NT portrait of Miryam —a devout Jewish girl who trusted in God. This article focuses on her Bible-rooted faith and its implications for the child she raised in her home. [5 HTML pages]

HaYachid—The Unique Messiah
In the NT, Yeshua is referred to as God's "one and only" and his "beloved one." Both terms mirror the Hebrew word yachid, which is used for special, unique, and precious children — including Isaac. [7 pages, PDF]

He Sat Down
When used of God, Messiah, and the sons of David, the verb "to sit" means to rule as king. [2 HTML pages]

John 1:14
This single passage contains a wealth of allusions to Hebrew Bible concepts. [2 HTML pages]

Koiné Greek Introduction & Transliteration Table
This PDF has the Greek alphabet and pronunciation guide, and an introduction to the history of Koiné Greek. Included are sample texts from the Septuagint and NT in modern Greek type and ancient uncial letters. [3 pages, PDF]

"Messiah Belongs to God"
The biblical portrait of the Messiah, being in submission to God, carries important implications for his disciples. For they too must choose to subject themselves to God, Messiah, and one another — if they wish to be included in Yeshua's new covenant. [3 HTML pages]

Miryam Sings With Hannah
Joining an ancient chorus of praise by various mothers of Israel, Yeshua's mother sang with Hannah, the mother of Samuel, who lived a thousand years before. This table compares Luke 1:46–55 and 1 Samuel 2:1–10. [1 HTML page]

Re-enthroning God, the Father
The God and Father of Yeshua is inextricably tied to the revelation of his Son Messiah. But too often in Christian teaching, the Av is eclipsed. This study focuses on restoring his place of honor. [7 HTML pages]

Saturday Night, The First Day of the Week
The evidence of the New Testament is that the earliest Jewish and Gentile believers gathered in the evening after the end Shabbat for their fellowship meetings. [4 HTML pages]

The Shema is Not All
Deuteronomy 6:4 (the "Shema: Hear, O Israel") is expanded by Yeshua and the New Testament to include the fuller revelation about God found in Psalm 110:1. [4 HTML pages]

Song of the Lamb
Yeshua joins Moses in singing praise to God, the Father, the Lord God the Almighty. [3 HTML pages]

Torah in the N.T. (Alef)—1 Timothy 1
This parallel table compares some of the Ten Commandments with the apostle Paul's teaching in 1 Timothy 1. [1 HTML page]

Torah in the N.T. (Beit)—Colossians 3
This parallel table compares portions of the Shema in Deut. 6 with the apostle Paul's teaching in Colossians 3. [1 HTML page]

Torah in the N.T. (Gimel)—Authority of Hebrew Bible
This table lists the occurrences of Paul's phrase "It is written" and the texts he is referring to. [2 HTML pages]

Torah in the N.T. (Dalet)—Three Divisions of Tanakh
The Hebrew Bible is divided into three sections: the Law, the Prophets, and the Writings. This order is reflected in statements by Yeshua and by Paul. [2 HTML pages]

The Tzaddikim Who Raised Yeshua
The gospel of Luke portrays those Jews who were closest to Yeshua in his youth as being the most orthodox and hasidic. This study explores the substance of their faith. Luke's agenda was to affirm God's revelation to Israel and to highlight the "ground" in which the Messianic Sprout grew up. [4 HTML pages]

Who Killed Yeshua?
The NT lays the burden for the death of Yeshua at the feet of three sources: Jewish leaders, Gentile leaders, and God himself. [3 HTML pages]

Worship in the N.T. (Following Hebrew Bible Maps)
This detailed study examines "objects" of worship. That is, it looks at whom the first Jewish believers prayed to and worshiped. Worship reveals a person's underlying believes and concepts about God. The NT evidence is compared with worship patterns in the Hebrew Bible, and it demands reexamination of historical Christian practice and thoughts. [1 HTML intro page + 16 PDF pages]

Yashar 30
This final issue of the Yashar study paper from April 1995 contains articles such as: The Three Anointings, He Sat Down, The Glory and the Lamp, Ani Hu, The Holy Ghost Conspiracy, He Cried. The paper was the precursor to the Hebrew Streams website, launched in 1998. [20 PDF pages]

Yeshua bar Abba
There is an ironic play on the names of Jesus and Barabbas which is invisible in English Bibles. Only knowledge of Hebrew and Aramaic (and some textual analysis) reveals this rich irony in the gospel story of Yeshua's last day. [2 HTML pages]

Yeshua Fixed Them Breakfast
John 21 depicts a scene filled with fulfilled prophesy, future promises, and the love of God. [3 HTML pages]

Yeshua Knelt to Pray
New Testament writers emphasize that Yeshua had an active and varied prayer life, which he intended his disciples to follow. This study looks at his devotional experience and concludes that he wasn't pantomiming by praying. He truly was communicating with God, his Father. [5 HTML pages]

Yeshua Sang Hymns
It's uncommon to hear people talk about Yeshua singing praise hymns. This study examines three passages — Matthew 26:30, Hebrews 2:12, Revelation 5:3-4 — to show that his hymns focus on God's salvation of himself and the faithful of Israel and of the Nations. [5 HTML pages]

Yeshua's (the Lord's) Prayer
His prayer in Matthew 6 and Luke 11 in Hebrew, English, English transliteration. [2 PDF pages]  

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