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"Shema Yisrael, Adonai Eloheinu, Adonai Echad."
(Deuteronomy 6:4)

"For us there is one God, the Father...and one Lord, Yeshua Messiah."
(1 Corinthians 8:6)

"This is eternal life that they may know You...
the only true God and Yeshua Messiah, whom you have sent."
(John 17:3)

[See the discussion of "Monotheism" below the list of articles.]

1 John 5:7
Since the 1500s this passage has been widely viewed as an interpolation in the NT text by early Catholic scribes. This article contains a chart of how modern English and several other translations handle the verse. Also included are comments on its history and explanations why most modern Bible editors do not include it. [8 HTML pages]

1 John 5:7 and the Book of Mormon
The Book of Mormon purports to be an untainted source of direct divine revelation. But it contains a passage that was inserted into the Greek New Testament by Catholic scribes and is found in the King James Bible. [2 HTML pages]

The Divine Council in the Hebrew Bible
This is Chapter 2 from a larger thesis by the same name. This chapter focuses on the evidence for the council imagery and concept in the Tanakh (Old Testament). [29 PDF pages]

The Divine Council in Second Temple Judaism & the New Testament
This is Chapter 5 from a larger thesis. It focuses on the trajectories of the heavenly council imagery and concept in the Hebrew Bible into documents of what is called "Early Judaism" and in the New Testament. See "Heavenly Council" below. [27 PDF pages]

Early Christian Creeds
This document contains introductory notes and texts for the following creeds: Apostles' Creed, Creed of Caesarea, Creed of Nicea, Constantinopolitan Creed, Athanasian Creed, and salient portions of the Creed of Chalcedon. Theological evolution is evident. [4 HTML pages]

"Echad" in the Shema
The meaning of the adjective echad ("one") is the subject of numerous discussions. This study seeks to clarify what is often misunderstood or misinterpreted. We examine the word in the contexts of the Shema (Deut 6:4), then the whole message of the Hebrew Bible and the ancient (pagan) world in which Israel lived. [7 HTML pages]

“Elohim” in Biblical Context
The Hebrew word "Elohim" has been mined for its secrets for centuries. Its plural ending "-im" suggests to some a plurality within the Godhead. What is often missing in such interpretations is a thorough study of the word within the biblical contexts. This article looks at those contexts in depth and examines the other words for "God." This is a very detailed study. [Now 2 linked HTML documents]

The Genesis Plurals
Three times in Genesis God speaks using first person plural pronouns ("us" and "our"). This phenomenon occurs elsewhere only in Isaiah 6 and 41. How are these passages to be explained, from within the Bible itself? [7 HTML pages]

God Loved Yeshua
Whom God loves is a validation and example. [2 HTML pages]

He Sat Down
Some people misunderstand this imagery. When Yeshua sat down, the purpose was not to rest. Just the opposite. It was to finish his work. [2 HTML pages]

John 20:28: "My Lord and my God"
Thomas's exclamation upon seeing the resurrected Yeshua has served as a banner of faith for many Christians. When viewed in the context of other NT exclamations and confessions of faith, his words can take on other meanings.

Old Models vs Biblical Priorities
The Bible doesn't change its rock solid stance in spite of being remodelled, reinterpreted, even revised, by later generations. [6 HTML pages]

The OMG (God of Western Culture)
The Bible is a confrontational collection of anti-pluralistic, anti-syncretistic affirmations about the God of ancient Israel and of the New Testament. The pop culture God of our time, the OMG, is simply another deity in the pantheon created by humans as their alternative to the biblical God. [2 HTML pages]

Re-enthroning God the Father
The God and Father of Yeshua is inextricably tied to the revelation of his Son Messiah. But too often in Christian teaching, the Av is eclipsed. This study focues on restoring his place of honor. [7 HTML pages]

The Rock of Yeshua's Kehilah
A central confession of faith in the NT is often ignored by the modern Kehilah (Church). [3 HTML pages]

The Shema is Not All
Deuteronomy 6:4 (the "Shema: Hear, O Israel") is expanded by Yeshua and the New Testament to include the fuller revelation about God found in Psalm 110:1. [4 HTML pages]

The Two Lords (of Psalm 110:1)
There are two Hebrew words translated "Lord." Psalm 110:1 contains both of them. This one verse opens a window into Messianic theology and prophecy, and forms a major link between Hebrew Scripture and the New Testament. This verse is the most quoted by Yeshua and his Jewish disciples. [6 HTML pages]

They Knew Who He Was (How Kosher Was the Witness of Unclean Spirits to Yeshua of Nazareth?)
The NT contains some striking testimonies about Yeshua. This text list compares them to testimonies from his disciples and from God. [2 HTML pages]

To God, Through Messiah
In the NT, the repeated pattern of spiritual progression is toward God through the Messiah Yeshua. This mirrors the Tanakh pattern of approaching God at the Mishkan (Tabernacle) in the person of the High Priest. [2 HTML pages]

What is Monotheism? A Survey
The term means different things to different religious groups and individuals. It's time that we, as Bible readers, seriously compare these definitions with the contents of the Hebrew Bible and New Testament. [4 HTML pages]

Worship in the N.T. (Following Hebrew Bible Maps)
This detailed study examines "objects" of worship. That is, it looks at whom the first Jewish believers prayed to and worshiped. Worship reveals a person's underlying beliefs and concepts about God. The NT evidence is compared with worship patterns in the Hebrew Bible, and it demands reexamination of historical Christian practice and thought. [1 HTML + 16 PDF pages]

Yashar 30
This final issue of the Yashar study paper from April 1995 contains articles such as: The Three Anointings, He Sat Down, The Glory and the Lamp, Ani Hu, The Holy Ghost Conspiracy, He Cried. This paper was the precursor of the Hebrew Streams website, launched in 1998. [20 PDF pages]

Yeshua's Father and God
Some Christians call Yeshua "Abba, Father." This is not done in the NT. So where did the custom come from? [3 HTML pages]

Related Text Studies

Daniel 7:9-14 Allusions in the N.T.

Messiah and the Spirit [PDF]

Messiah Was With God

Occurrences of "Holy Spirit" in the N.T.

Psalm 110:1 in the N.T. (Quotations & Allusions)

Ruach in the Hebrew Scriptures [PDF]

Salutations & Benedictions in the N.T.


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