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"The word of our God stands forever." (Isaiah 40:8)

This portal contains articles on the interpretations of rabbinic elders
and how their views intersect and illuminate portions of the New Testament.
Adon Olam — Lord of Eternity
Hebrew & English version of this famous hymn in Orthodox worship. Attributed to Solomon ibn Gabirol of Spain (1021-1055). [1 PDF page]

"Echad" in the Shema
The meaning of the adjective echad ("one") is the subject of numerous discussions. This study seeks to clarify what is often misunderstood or misinterpreted. We examine the word in the contexts of the Shema (Deut 6:4), then the whole message of the Hebrew Bible and the ancient (pagan) world in which Israel lived. [7 HTML pages]

"Elohim" in Biblical Context
The Hebrew word "Elohim" has been mined for its secrets for centuries. Its plural ending "-im" suggests to some a plurality within the Godhead. What is often missing in such interpretations is a thorough study of the word within its biblical contexts. This article looks at those contexts in depth and examines the other words for "God." This is a very detailed study. [Now 2 linked HTML documents]

Hanukkah and Yeshua
Some commentators say Yeshua celebrated Hanukkah, which commemorated the Maccabean revolt against paganism and the rededication of the Jerusalem Temple in 164 BCE. But comparing the spirit and purpose of the memorial with the spirit and purpose of Yeshua's ministry suggests he did not endorse this anti-Gentile festival. [7 HTML pages]

He Who is Coming: The Hidden Afikoman
The dessert matzah of the Passover Seder once had messianic connotations. But over time they were apparently suppressed. This article discusses the meaning of afikoman and the light it sheds on the Last Passover. [3 HTML pages]

Holocaust Message
This brief page of remembrance, repentance, and expression of restoration hope, was written in 1995 and accompanied a memorial window display in Princeton, New Jersey. (See "Yom HaSho'ah" this page.) [1 HTML page]

The Last Passover of Yeshua
Based on historical documents, this is a reconstruction of what the Seder may have been like when Yeshua and his disciples observed it for the last time. It points out links between the Seder and the celebration of Passover which Yeshua hosted in Jerusalem in his final days. [18 pages, PDF]

Lies That Jews Changed the Shema
An internet falsehood says the rabbis substituted the word yachid for the original scriptural word echad, in order to quelch Christian interpretations of the Shema (Deut 6:4). This brief article debunks the lie. [3 HTML pages]

A Messianic Kiddush
This is a non-traditional Shabbat blessing that incorporates the traditional Kiddush with acknowledgment that Yeshua is God's gift of Light and Bread. (Contains Hebrew text, transliteration and English translation.) [2 HTML pages]

The Myth of Jewish Rejection of Jesus
Israel was of divided, not one-sided, opinion about Jesus in his day. Thousands believed in him. The great historical myth of total Jewish Rejection is dismantled by the NT. And there are two prophecies in Isaiah that foretold the whole story. [8 HTML pages]

Predictions of Messiah's Coming in Jewish Literature
For centuries Jewish thinkers predicted the date of the Messiah's arrival. The book of Daniel and the book of Jubilees in the Pseudepigrapha pointed to the First Century (the era of Yeshua) as the prophetic appointed time. After his era, the rabbis proposed other dates of Messiah's arrival. They range from AD/CE 80 to 1931. More recently, followers of the late Lubavitcher rabbi Menahem Schneerson have held firm their belief that he was/is the "Moshiach" and will come back from the dead to take office. [6 pages, PDF, 506k]

Sanhedrin 43a
This English only portion from the Babylonian Talmud contains references to Yeshua ["Yeshu" in this translation] and to his disciples. [4 HTML pages]

The Shema is Not All
Deuteronomy 6:4 (the "Shema: Hear, O Israel") is expanded by Yeshua and the New Testament to include the fuller revelation about God found in Psalm 110:1. [4 HTML pages]

The Thirteen Principles of Faith
These principles or fundamentals of Jewish faith were composed by Maimonides (1135-1204) as a kind of "creed" distinguishing Judaism from both Christianity and Islam. This document contains an introduction to the author, as well as the Hebrew and English text of the Principles.

The Three Divisions of the Tanakh
Hebrew Bibles were traditionally divided in three orders. These tables list the books and their Hebrew, Greek, and English names.

What Are the Mishnah and Talmud?
A brief explanation by novelist Chaim Potok. [2 HTML pages]

Why Jews Hate Guns
Written by Rabbi Dovid Bendory for the American organization Jews For the Preservation of Firearms Ownership [JPFO], this study articulates why secular American Jews are opposed to private ownership of self-defense weapons, and why their efforts can lead to mass murder. Bendory discusses 10 reasons why non-religious Jews adamantly hold anti-gun views. [Posted here with permission of JPFO.] [4 PDF pages]

Yeshua Did Not Hate Jews
Some people want to edit the New Testament so it doesn't inflame anti-Semitic attitudes. But is the NT the cause of Christian anti-Jewish feelings and actions? This study argues that what happened in Church history has little to do with Yeshua or his disciples—any more than the fiery words of Isaiah and Jeremiah against Jerusalem are responsible for the tragedies of Jewish history. In reality, had the Church paid attention to the teachings of the NT, no Jewish person would ever have suffered at the hands of Christians. [6 HTML pages]

Yom HaSho'ah: The Holocaust Window
A photographic memorial. [2 HTML pages w/ photos]

Related Studies in Other Portals

The Genesis Plurals

HaShem—The Name

The Heavenly Council in the Hebrew Bible and N.T.

Explanation | Hebrew Bible | Monotheism | Author/Editor
Hebrew-Greek Transliteration (PDF)